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Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 50 percent from soil erosion

Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 50 percent from soil erosion

Why reducing our carbon emission matter?

Carbon Dioxide Emission
Carbon Dioxide Emission


Soil is the largest storehouse of carbon present in our earth. Three times more carbon is in the soil than the carbon present in the environment. The release of carbon from the soil has continued ever since we started farming.

Positive Feedback Loop: 

Positive Feedback Loop will multiply the climate crisis out of control.

Positive feedback loop
Positive feedback loop

Climate Scientists around the world are worrying about the "Positive Feedback Loop".  This is the process when a quantitative change in one thing changes a thing or a quantitative change in another affects the first thing. Scientists fear that this Positive Feedback Loop will multiply the climate crisis out of control.

Co2 emission make the Arctic ice free
Co2 emission make the Arctic ice free

Desertification can be considered an example of a Positive Feedback Loop. Just as the frozen ice in the Arctic is melting, Siberian Permafrost is melting and a large amount of methane gas is coming out of the ocean floor. Climate crisis is increasing Desertification, and on the other hand Desertification is also exacerbating this problem. Overall, it can be said that this is a kind of vicious cycle that continues continuously. It needs to be understood but first I want to make it clear that this is a simplification of a very complex process.

Carbon Dioxide Emission :Soil Erosion responsible worldwide

Carbon Dioxide Emission: Soil erosion responsible
Carbon Dioxide Emission: Soil erosion responsible

Soil is the largest storehouse of carbon present in our earth. Three times more carbon is in the soil than the carbon present in the atmosphere. The release of carbon from the soil has continued ever since we started farming. But now Desertification has increased it considerably. The emission of carbon from soil is increasing in the Global temperature by reaching the atmosphere. Latest data suggests that soil erosion is responsible for 3.6–4.4 billion tonnes of carbon (10–12 per cent of total emissions) emissions worldwide. In India, 50 percent more carbon dioxide is being emitted from soil erosion than the total emitted carbon dioxideIndia is the world's third largest carbon emitter.  Here soil erosion has contributed to the climate crisis.


Carbon Dioxide Emission increasing Desertification

Carbon Dioxide Emission increasing Desertification
Carbon Dioxide Emission increasing Desertification

On the other hand, climate crisis is also increasing Desertification through drought, floods and forest fires. It is also changing the nature of temperature, solar energy and wind.  In this way climate crisis and Desertification are related to each other. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ° C clearly stated that we cannot achieve the target of 1.5 ° C without removing carbon from the atmosphere at large. The best way to remove carbon is to cover it in forests, grassland and soil. To achieve the 1.5 ° C target, carbon needs to be rapidly absorbed from the atmosphere and this can be done by increasing the capacity of the Natural Carbon Sink. It is also necessary to deal with Desertification. We must reduce afforestation, improve vegetation cover, efficient use of water and soil erosion through improved farming practises to fix degraded land. All these measures will improve Biomass production and Organic carbon content in the soil. The only way to deal with Desertification and climate change is to increase the natural sink. In such a situation, the question arises that how and on what scale can we apply these measures to achieve the target of 1.5 ° C?

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Up gradation

Deforestation
Deforestation

It was designed in 2007 in REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Up gradation). There was a provision to help tropical countries to conserve forest so that they could sell carbon credits to developed countries. So far, more than 300 REDD + measures have been taken worldwide. Even after a decade, there is no evidence that it has contributed to stop Deforestation. The carbon market has collapsed. The support from developed countries to achieve the goals of REDD + is also far below expectations. Due to this REDD + could not succeed.  But the lessons learned can be useful in creating a new Global system to increase the natural carbon sink. We can name this new Global system as a sync mechanism.

Global System a sync. Mechanism 


The first lesson is that any system related to land and forest will succeed only if they are owned by the community. Studies show that the ownership of Indigenous people and community has yielded excellent results of forest conservation and that too at very low investment. The sink mechanism will also be effective only if millions of forest dwellers and farmers work together to reduce land and forest degradation and increase the carbon stock in the forest and land.

Second, the notion of carbon self-employment is also important. In other words, this system should be the basis of improvement in sustainable forests and methods of agricultural management. This will ensure social, economic and ecological benefits.

Third, land and forest based systems cannot survive with carbon credits. It cannot be left at the mercy of the market. One has to think outside the market to finance it. Therefore, we need to develop a mechanism that does not interfere with the market and where the funds are spent on the development of local communities and local bodies. They should be rewarded on the basis of their performance and their contribution in reducing carbon.


Carbon Dioxide Emission: Graph Worldwide
Carbon Dioxide Emission: Graph Worldwide

Finally, no Global system can rely solely on international funding.  The experience of REDD + suggests that once foreign funding stops, projects do not survive. Therefore, funds for sink mechanism should be met from domestic and international resources.

Between 2020 and 2050, 150-200 billion tons of carbon can be reduced by stopping and reforesting the loss of forests. During this period, an additional 30-60 billion tons of carbon can be stored in agricultural land in dry areas. More than one-third of the Climate Disaster can be reduced with the sink mechanism that reduces the problems of forests and agriculture. The good thing is that various countries have begun to understand the importance of sink. Countries have shown interest in increasing the carbon sink in their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement.  An analysis by NDC suggests that more than 100 countries have focused on land use and forests as part of their Climate Mitigation strategy. Now the need is that all countries should be persuaded for sink mechanism so that the climate crisis can be fought against the left.

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